In Colombia, the resolution 0074 of 2002 provides a "system of production", but in general, the terms organic or biological are synonyms. Regulation of the European Union (Regulation 2092/91- Section 2) determines that for Spanish speakers, known as organic products should be called organic. In this paper we use the word organic to refer to this type of production. However, some countries prefer one term to another (in France use the term biological), but in the strict sense of these terms if they involve technical and conceptual differences.
Colombia is entering the market for organic agricultural products since 1998. Colombian exports have evolved from U.S. $ 4 million in 1998, U.S. $ 9 million in 2000, U.S. $ 11 million in 2001 and $ 19 million in 2002, with an annual growth between 10 and 20%. Under the Convention ProExport – PROTRADE, in 1999 the country had grown to 20 hectares certified as organic in 2001 and 25 thousand in 2003 about 30 thousand hectares and over 63 certified companies.
There are currently nearly 37 thousand hectares of organic products. Products that are certified as organic Colombia are the same in which they have comparative advantages and which is competitive in international markets and which also has adequate volume as coffee, bananas, sugar, palm oil and sugar, among others. There are also new products for export for lack of an appropriate size of the offer are not exported normally and that the market for organic products if they found an appropriate niche to limited supply, such as processed fruits, herbs, fine vinegars, guava pulp, buffalo meat, vegetables, milk, dry beans, pineapple, orange, coffee and citrus lyophilized.
Under ProExport in 1999 there were 8 thousand hectares of organic coffee, with a production of 14,933 bags of 60 kg. 6884 certified and transition bags. This production is distributed in the country as follows: 68.45% in the department of Magdalena, 14.7% for Santander, 10.7% in Cesar and Guajira, Antioquia with 4.01% and 2.14% in Cauca. For example, in the department of Magdalena, there are 18,000 hectares producing 160,000 coffee bags of 70 kilos, of which 7300 are dedicated to the production of one million pounds of certified organic coffee that is exported. For 2004 the Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, estimated at 25 thousand bags of 70 kilos of coffee production. Today there are several export companies as Eco-Bio Café Colombia and Mesa de los Santos, exporting totaling nearly $ 2 million annually. Today the Federation of Coffee Growers is finalizing a guide ICONTEC on organic coffee, which takes into account the specific conditions of Colombia for the cultivation and development of farmers.
Certified companies that produce organic coffee are: Departmental Coffee Committee of Santander in Bucaramanga, Organic Agriculture Society Tatamá in Pereira, Armenia Asoorganicos, Association of Small Ocamonte of coffee growers in San Gil, Berlin in Barranquilla Agricultural Association Organic coffee growers in Colombia Riofrio Valle, Co-operative of coffee growers in Aguadas Caldas, from coffee growers cooperative in Salamina Salamina Caldas, Cooperativa del Sur del Cauca COSURCA in Popayan, Colombia Ecobio Sta Marta, Freeze Dried Coffee Factory in Chinchiná Foundation Our Cali in Colombia, Grupo Ingruma in Riosucio, La Rochelle Trujillo, Hacienda Las Flores B / manga, Hacienda Santa Rita in San Gil, Thresher Mocca in Sta Marta.
Colombia cultivates 41,300 hectares of bananas, of which 10,300 are in the department of Magdalena, and 31,000 in the Area of Uraba Antioqueño. In 1999, there was estimated 400 hectares planted to bananas certified organic or in transition and identified 3 companies.
In 1999, ProExport estimated 2,000 hectares of cultivated Palma certified or in transition in Colombia. At present there are 175 thousand hectares in the country, of which 5 thousand are grown organically, representing 2.85% of the planted area. The producers have made significant progress in the Integrated Pest Management, 27 companies are using it exclusively and biological control products such as fertilizers. Plants benefit from 98% of plants with wastewater treatment, 100% of companies have environmental management plan, remove 50% (2000 tons). The challenge for producers of palm oil is aimed at the lack of natural ecosystems, zero emissions and incorporation of the dimension as a factor in competitiveness.
Colombia exported 7700 tonnes (IITC to France in 1997), between August 1998 and August 1999, 3024 tonnes of organic palm oil, worth U.S. $ 2660 million FOB. The main destinations were Belgium (68%) and UK (30 %).
ProExport had estimated for 1999, 239 hectares of certified organic mango and transition in Colombia. The grip has also been identified as one of the potential of biodiversity in Colombia, which may have greater involvement in international markets, primarily in the United States, Canada and the European Union. The following companies are certified to export mangoes in Colombia: MANKAY, Finca Rancho Grande in Bogotá and Samaria Research Center in Santa Marta.
This product has been marketed with great success since the 1988 Atlantic Packaging Company CEA in drums of 50 liters for the markets for European industrial companies. Have participated in international fairs and demand for the product through proper marketing and design is stable and growing.
Organic cold vegetables
The Center for Agribusiness Research and Consultancy, CIAA, the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, implemented the project "Establishment of a system partner for Certified Organic Production of Fruits and Vegetables in Cold Weather", co-financed by the Association Producers of Vegetables and Fruits, ASOHOFRUCOL. The project took place in production units located in the central area of the country on the eastern cordillera and the Sabana de Bogotá, in the municipalities of Chía, Villapinzón, Cucunuba, Taus, Bojacá, Cogua, Cajicá, Tabio, Tenjo, Tocancipá, Sopó, Guasca, Gachancipá, machetes, Subachoque, Choachi, Fusagasuga, Fomeque and Silvania. To ensure productivity levels are implemented the following techniques: organic fertigation, monitoring the status of soil nutrients, water and plants, use of seedlings, allelopathy and botanicals, biological control, vermiculture, composting, product uniformity and value added in the final physical presentation.
Group of Ecological Producers Association is comprised of 28 members, who certified 109.6 hectares, and the Corporación Colombia Internacional: Lettuce Batavia 2%, 3% Crespo Lettuce, Spinach 3%, curly parsley 3%, 4% Cauliflower, Carrot 4%, 4% Leek, Radish red 4%, 5% Chard, Parsley Smooth 5%, 7% Lettuce, 11% Broccoli, Cilantro 23%, other 13% . Marketing is done directly to supermarket chains CADENALCO, SUCCESS AND CARREFOUR. The main results relate to the formation of associations, certification of production, the conversion of the production system, the cultural change of partners, forming a portfolio of 25 vegetables, creating brand ECOSECHA, adoption ecological techniques, assimilation of the training process, to adopt the culture of the records and traceability for the products and evaluate varieties.
Organic stock farming is represented mainly by the use of buffalo as a producer of meat and milk, in the municipality of Puerto Nare, Antioquia. The program was initiated by the Fund and the Livestock Center Foundation Vapores of Magdalena in 1999 at the Swiss sites, adapting grasslands heads and installing 4000, where 99% are buffaloes and 50% for bellies Bufalino for breeding program and milk. Milk production has recorded average monthly production of 2500 liters per day. Ganaderos Fund Center created its own brand BUFAM (Environmental buffalo), set standards of quality and age of slaughter, 24 to 27 months for males without castration, aging in meat, standards for transport infrastructure and network Cold milk production was up a retail outlet specializing in products in Manizales buffalo Buffalo. Magdalena Vapores Foundation established a partnership with the Fridge Manizales FRIGOCENTRO to adjust their production to the standards required by the ICC and get the organic certification process andalusia sacrifice.
Transport from Yondo until Manizales, ten hours of travel from animals primed, trained drivers do, in trucks and making a comfortable station in the Plaza 4 hours of Golden Fair to provide rest and water cool.
In Cucunubá Municipality, Cundinamarca Department, there is a small organic dairy herd of 20 Holstein cows and an output of 500 liters / day. The milk is not being marketed as organic, is sold in the normal market price of conventional milk.
About the author