To solve environmental problems, we need awareness of society and we must all do our best to solve them.
The concept of cycle of life and sustainable development is being used on a widespread basis as a solution to environmental problems. The use of a material, equipment or facility should not end when manufactured, sold or installed, but it ends when you stop using, or is replaced, you need to know when and how to rehabilitate or maintain and evaluate all costs.
The environmental problem is related to energy. In the case of feeding, the following problems exist:
- Insecticides and pesticides
- Heavy metals in canned products and fish
- Chlorinated and fluorinated compounds used as refrigerants in refrigeration facilities and blowing in the insulation industry
- Plastics used in greenhouses, bags and food packaging
- Plastic crates and plastic pallets
- Pig slurry concentrates
- Grape sludge
- Water washed from cereal
- Crop residues (bone of olive, hazelnut shell, etc.)
- Urban waste and water purification
- Salt water from drying of hams and factories
- Agricultural waste facilities
There are other issues indirectly related to energy consumption, oil needed by the machines, the useful tools, etc. Environmentalists complain the most striking, such as red algae, oil spills, burning forests, nuclear waste, acid rain, etc.
The major contamination of the environment is occurring because of increased CO2 and the greenhouse effect that is associated with it. The measures taken are not yielding the desired results, and alternative energies are not providing great solutions. The energy, the pursuit of greater energy efficiency is better solution.
Policy is enshrined in the European parliament's decision and the board 97 / C 28/04. Here we review the Framework V Program, which emphasizes that the policy should be focused on product life cycle and must be sustainable development.
In relation to packaging, the following guidelines:
- 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste
- 85/339/EEC on packaging for liquid foods
Spain adapts the European directives in the Spanish Basic Law 10/1990 on waste. In March 2000, the directive maintains its position to minimize the dumping of biodegradable waste in landfills while extending the time and reducing the targets set in the 5th Program, proposes a reduction to 75% of the current volume for the year 2006, 50% for 2009 and 35% by 2016 To achieve this, it is clear that it is necessary to introduce separate collection and treatment (like composting).
Use of agricultural residues
Agriculture activities result in products, such as urine and faeces. These products can be used as fertilizers and produce methane.
In agricultural activities are also products such as biomass and bagasse for the manufacture of beer, which can be used to obtain fuel and converted into energy. If this is cost-effective reuse waste go from being a product to have an important value, has the same problems as conventional building materials. Those using concrete, plaster and brick have more problems than with clay, stone and wood. Fees for discharge only partially solve the problem. There are short-lived materials, but they occupy a very high cost and that has not yet been thought of as reuse. One example is the insulation of cold stores.
One of the main measures is the "polluter pays" principle, which can be a good starting point. Trying to raise awareness in society of the need to develop the above activities in a sustainable manner. The establishment of environmental or inclusion of these issues in the teaching or promotion of eco-label to help solve these problems.
Since we believe a product must take into account the energy needed to manufacture the product for transportation or energy consuming the product, we need to reuse, conversion, or processing or burial and whether should use its ability to convert into energy or not before the end of its life cycle.
In food, one of the most interesting topics that are presented is the study of the life cycle of food, including the technology for production, conservation and marketing. It is considered essential in resolving collective awareness of environmental issues.