Permaculture was born in Australia in the 70s, created by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, who sought to establish a design system to build sustainable human settlements.
On the island of Tasmania for a year, they prepared the groundwork for what today is the thesis as Permaculture Holmgren University without knowing, perhaps, that these days it would be for teaching and learning in over 80 countries worldwide.
Its name was initially the combination of "permanent agriculture" and soon came to encompass the broader concept of "Permanent Culture".
Several others ecovillages have emerged taken permaculture design as a basis, meaning that the integrated design is the cornerstone from which we begin to build healthy environments in which we can develop and live peacefully and in harmony.
"Permaculture is about designing sustainable human settlements. In its philosophy seeks to use the intensive use of land, microclimate, annual and perennial plants , animals, soil, water management and human needs in a close connection. "
"It's a production system design based on the maximum ratio between all elements of the system to meet our immediate needs and protect resources for future generations."
“Everywhere and nowhere, because Permaculture is a way of thinking is not something tangible. You can see the principles in action in given projects, but many aspects can be seen anywhere. Nor can it be seen as something completely because permaculture is a process in time. Permaculture is a new name given to a man. The ancient native cultures understood that if a resource depleted at some point I was going to fail. They are outstanding examples of practice of permaculture. There are those who work in Permaculture Institutes and thoroughly studying the discipline of design. Some do it just for pleasure. Many more never hear the word permaculture practice but using common sense. "
Graham Bell, The Permaculture Way
"Permaculture teaches observing the dynamics of natural ecosystems. We can apply this knowledge to design ecosystems that address the needs of human populations without degrading our natural environment."
"Permaculture integrates plant, animals, landscapes, structures and people in symbiotic systems where a replacement product of the needs of another."
"Once established, the systems require a minimum of materials, energy and labor to maintain them. By recycling the resources "wasted" in the system also minimizes pollution. permaculture systems supplying human needs efficiently by incorporating useful species of high performance. Permaculture systems are designed to be different, so when one element fails, the system has the stability and strength to thrive and has a greater potential for long-term economic viability. "
Skye, Permaculture in Mexico
Permaculture has three main ingredients:
1. 'Care of the earth', 'care of people' and 'fair return' (which is an abbreviation which refers to the limits of the population and consumption, and the fair distribution of resources to advance the work of caring for the earth and care of people). Permaculture also stresses the importance of assuming personal responsibility for our actions.
2. Ecological Principles from the observation of natural systems, by ecologists such as Birch and Odum.
3. Design tools and processes that bring together concepts, elements and components within a strategic framework or plan of action that may be implemented and maintained with minimal resources.
Following the publication of Permaculture One, Mollison and Holmgren refined and developed their ideas with hundreds of designing both originators' permaculture land 'and writing several books. Mollison taught in over 80 countries and Course Design of two weeks' duration, was taught to many hundreds of students. In the early 1980, the concept moved from a predominantly agricultural systems design process to design a more fully holistic to create sustainable human habitats.
In the mid 1980s, many students had become successful pilots, began teaching the method in a short period of time permaculture groups were established, projects, associations and institutes in more than 100 countries.
Permaculture is now well established throughout the world, there are many inspiring examples of their use. Zimbabwe has 60 schools designed using permaculture, with a national team working to drive curriculum development in schools. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR ) has prepared a report on using permaculture in refugee situations, following its successful use in camps South Africa and Macedonia. A tribe in Peru has evolved from a growing dependence on government subsidies to their self-reliance and support to other tribes.
At 24 years of its conception, permaculture has proven to be a successful approach to the design of sustainable systems and may be used in all climatic and cultural zones.
Permaculture is thus a primary tool in the quest for the creation of a socially and ecologically balanced world. A economically better world for all. Where life is worth a maximum stronghold and where humans assume our role as co-creators of the world.
"The garden can not sprout and flourish
Without loving care.
The garden does not arise simply have to work, take care,
remove the weeds to avoid guarantee,
watering in the dry season.
Plants should be well,
The soil must be careful.
Success gardener must do.
So is life.
Efforts are needed to bring out the best.
Efforts are need to think correctly.
We must effort by joining with your peers.
The unit is not because so
you have to do your part to create ..."
Eileen Caddy, "Findhorn Foundation"
Source: Ecocenter Eluwn, Wikipedia, www.agrodesierto.com
Tags: agriculture history permaculture sustainable
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