In a previous article, we talked about fat soluble vitamins, now we will know a little more of the water-soluble ones. These vitamins are those that dissolve easily in water and when we cook them, we should do it carefully, because if we cooked them for a long time many of their properties may be destroyed.
Another feature is that they don’t manage to accumulate in the body; they dissolve easily, that’s why we should consume daily, but ultimately the amount will depend on the needs of each person.
If an individual makes a lot of physical activity, can get deficiencies of these vitamins, even though he/has an adequate diet. For such cases, the pharmaceutical industry created the vitamin supplements.
What are they?
Water-soluble vitamins are made up of:
- Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid.
- Vitamin B1 or Thiamine.
- Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin.
- Vitamin B3 or Niacin. Nicotinic acid. Vitamin PP.
- Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid. Vitamin W.
- Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine.
- Vitamin B8 or Biotin. Vitamin H.
- Vitamin B9 or folic acid.
- Vitamin B12 or cobalamin.
Besides helping in the production of collagen, Vitamin C is important for the repair of the gums, blood vessels, bones and teeth, and helps to the metabolism, so it reduces cholesterol.
The need for vitamin C is not equal for all, during growth, pregnancy and injuries, the requirements for this nutrient is increased.
You should know that vitamin C oxidizes and loses its activity in contact with air, and this must be remembered when one is preparing a fruit juice such as orange, take it quickly or it will lose a lot of vitamin C. The other form of destruction of vitamin C is to have contact with ethyl alcohol, for example beer or tequila.
Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, swelling and bleeding gums and tooth decay.
Some other effects attributed to this vitamin are to prevent the common cold, and generally strengthening the body.
- Cow Milk
They are fragile substances soluble in water, many are important to metabolize carbohydrates. They are different components with vitamin activity, that’s why they are named by the letter B and a numerical subscript.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin or Aneurin)
Play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, i.e., in the production of energy. It is the great ally in the mood for their beneficial effect on the nervous system and mental attitude. Helps in cases of depression, irritability, memory loss, loss of concentration and exhaustion. Promotes growth and aids in digestion of carbohydrates.
Regulates nerve and heart functions. Its deficiency can cause a disease called beriberi, characterized by muscle weakness, inflammation of the heart and leg cramps and in severe cases, heart attack and death.
- Organ meats (liver, heart and kidneys)
- Green Leaf Plants
- Wheat Germ
Riboflavin. Just like thiamine, it acts as a coenzyme, i.e., must be combined with a portion of another enzyme to be effective in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and especially in the metabolism of proteins, involved in the transport of oxygen . Also acts to maintain the mucous membranes.
The failure of riboflavin may be complicated if there is lack of other B vitamins. Symptoms are skin lesions, especially around the lips and nose, and sensitivity to light.
- Wheat Germ
Vitamin B3-nicotinamide, Niacin
Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It is a vasodilator that improves blood circulation, participates in the physiological maintenance of the skin, tongue and digestive system.
Our body is able to produce a certain amount from a mixed diet. Consuming large amounts reduces cholesterol in blood, although large doses over prolonged periods can be harmful to the liver.
It is essential for the synthesis of sex hormones, and the production of cortisone, thyroxine and insulin in the body, helping to keep skin healthy and an efficient digestive system. It is essential for a healthy brain and nervous system.
- Whole wheat Flour
- Whole Wheat Bread
- Wheat Bran
- Beef Liver
- Wheat Germ
- Brown Rice
Vitamin B5-Pantothenic acid or vitamin W
It is in a large number and variety of foods, it is part of coenzyme A, which acts on the activation of molecules involved in energy metabolism; it is necessary for the synthesis of stress hormones. Its participation is required for the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids for the formation of antibodies, for the biotransformation and detoxification of toxic substances.
Its lack causes inattention, apathy, allergies and low energy in general. Its lack in animals produces hair loss and graying, in humans there is malaise, abdominal discomfort and burning feet. Sometimes it is administered to improve the healing of wounds, especially in the field of surgery.
- Green Beans
It acts on the use of body fat and red blood cell formation. Improves regeneration of nerve tissue to counteract the negative effects of radiotherapy and anti-motion sickness.
Vitamin B6 deficiency causes changes such as depression, convulsions, fatigue, skin disorders, cracks at the corners of the lips and kidney stones.
It’s very important for growth, as it helps in the assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, and without it, the body cannot make antibodies and red blood cells.
Is essential for the formation of niacin (vitamin B3), helps to absorb vitamin B12, to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach and is involved in the metabolism of magnesium. It also helps prevent diseases of nerves and skin.
This vitamin is found in almost all foods of both animal and vegetable sources, so it is very unusual to find deficiency states.
Vitamin B8 or Biotin Vitamin H
Involved in the formation of glucose from carbohydrates and fats. It is necessary for growth and proper functioning of the skin and adjoining organs (hair, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands) and for the development of the sex glands. One possible cause of deficiency may be the ingestion of raw egg white part, which contains a protein called avidin that prevents absorption of biotin. Its deficiency causes depression, muscle aches, anemia, fatigue, nausea, seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia, and growth disturbances.
B9 Folic Acid
It’s found mainly in the leaves of plant (Latin “folia” means leaf). Along with vitamin B12, it participates in the synthesis of DNA, the protein consists of chromosomes, which contains the genetic code that governs the metabolism of cells, so it is vital for growth. Prevents the appearance of cold sores and promotes the health of the skin. It also delays gray hair, helps to increase breast milk, and protects against intestinal parasites and poisoning or spoiled food.
Its deficiency manifests itself like vitamin B12 (weakness, fatigue, irritability, etc). Lack in children may affect their growth and decline disease resistance. In adults, causes anemia, irritability, insomnia, memory loss, decreased immunity, poor absorption of nutrients due to damage of the intestine. It is related, in the case of inadequate diets, with malformed fetuses, especially those with neural tube (bifida spine).
- Green Beans
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin
This vitamin is involved in the synthesis of DNA, RNA. It is necessary for the formation of nucleoproteins, proteins, red blood cells and nervous system function, mobilization (oxidation) of fat and maintains muscle energy reserves.
It is the only vitamin which is not found in vegetable products.